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Page 12 -- References

hank you for visiting the 3D Joint Kinematics Tutorial presented by the Biomechanics Laboratory at Penn State.


  • JK Startzell, Graduate Student, CELOS
  • DR Lemmon, Technical Coordinator, CELOS
  • PR Cavanagh, Director, CELOS
  • HJ Sommer, Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, PSU

For further information, refer to the following sources:

Buczek F. Three-Dimensional Kinematics and Kinetics of the Ankle and Knee Joints During Uphill, Level, and Downhill Walking, PhD Dissertation, Penn State University 1990.

Challis JH. A Procedure for Determining Rigid Body Transformation Parameters (Technical Note), J Biomech 28(6):733-737, 1995.

Cole G, Nigg BM, Ronsky JL, Yeadon MR. Application of the Joint Coordinate System to Three-Dimensional Joint Attitude and Movement Representation: A Standardization Proposal, Trans. ASME, 115: 344-349, 1993.

Craig J. Introduction to Robotics, Addison Wesley, 1986.

Grood E, Suntay W. A Joint Coordinate System for the Clinical Description of Three-Dimensional Motions: Application to the Knee, Trans. ASME 105:136-144, 1983.

Nigg B, Herzog W. Biomechanics of the Musculo-skeletal System, 264-277. John Wiley & Sons, 1994.

Sommer HJ. ASB Tutorial: Primer on 3-D Kinematics, 1991.

Sommer HJ. NASGCMA Tutorial: Primer on Three Dimensional Kinematics for Gait and Biomechanics, April 1997.

Veldpaus FE, Woltring HJ, Dortmans LJMG. A Least-Squares Algorithm for the Equiform Transformation from Spatial Marker Coordinates. J Biomech 21(1):45-54, 1988.

Spoor CW, Veldpaus FE. Rigid Body Motion Calculated from Spatial Coordinates of Markers (Technical Note), J Biomech 13:391-393, 1980.

Strang G. Linear Algebra and Its Applications. 3ed. Harcourt Brace Publishers, 1988.

Zatsiorsky, V.M. (1998). Kinematics of Human Motion. Human Kinetics: Champaign, IL.

Related Websites...
International Society of Biomechanics

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